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Their action is hypotensive (indi- (“pharmacological sympathectomy”) generic extra super levitra 100 mg on line, cation: hypertension 100mg extra super levitra overnight delivery, p. Disorders of extra- permits rapid penetration through the pyramidal motor function with devel- blood-brain barrier. These adverse effects have ting of systemic arterial pressure at a rendered the drug practically obsolete. It is stored instead lease of both norepinephrine (NE) and of NE, but is unable to mimic the func- acetylcholine. Lassitude, dry mouth; es the axonal membrane, thereby im- rebound hypertension after abrupt ces- peding the propagation of impulses into sation of clonidine therapy. Stor- Methyldopa (dopa = dihydroxy- age and release of epinephrine from the phenylalanine), as an amino acid, is adrenal medulla are not affected, owing transported across the blood-brain bar- to the absence of a re-uptake process. Cardiovascular cri- of methyldopa competes for a portion of ses are a possible risk: emotional stress the available enzymatic activity, so that of the patient may cause sympatho- the rate of conversion of L-dopa to NE adrenal activation with epinephrine re- (via dopamine) is decreased. Reserpine, an alkaloid from the Rauwolfia plant, abolishes the vesicular storage of biogenic amines (NE, dopa- mine = DA, serotonin = 5-HT) by inhibit- ing an ATPase required for the vesicular amine pump. The amount of NE re- Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Inhibitors of sympathetic tone Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Parasympathetic outflow is chan- nelled from the brainstem (1) through Responses to activation of the para- the third cranial nerve (oculomotor n. Parasympathetic via the ciliary ganglion to the eye; (2) nerves regulate processes connected through the seventh cranial nerve (fa- with energy assimilation (food intake, cial n. Approximately 75% of all because of enhanced peristaltic activity parasympathetic fibers are contained and lowered tone of sphincteric mus- within the vagus nerve. To empty the urinary bladder (mic- the sacral division innervate the distal turition), wall tension is increased by colon, rectum, bladder, the distal ure- detrusor activation with a concurrent ters, and the external genitalia. ACh serves as mediator at terminals thetic fibers (see below) results in nar- of all postganglionic parasympathetic rowing of the pupil and increased curva- fibers, in addition to fulfilling its trans- ture of the lens, enabling near objects to mitter role at ganglionic synapses with- be brought into focus (accommodation). However, dif- thetic preganglionic neurons are located ferent types of receptors are present at in the brainstem and the sacral spinal these synaptic junctions: Localization Agonist Antagonist Receptor Type Target tissues of 2nd ACh Atropine Muscarinic (M) parasympathetic Muscarine cholinoceptor; neurons G-protein-coupled- receptor protein with 7 transmembrane domains Sympathetic & ACh Trimethaphan Ganglionic type parasympathetic Nicotine (! Drugs Acting on the Parasympathetic Nervous System 99 Eyes: Accommodation for near vision, miosis Saliva: copious, liquid Bronchi: constriction secretion Heart: rate blood pressure GI tract: secretion peristalsis sphincter tone Bladder: sphincter tone detrusor A. Responses to parasympathetic activation Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. M1 receptors centrated in synaptic storage vesicles are present on nerve cells, e. ACh is formed from choline impulse transmission from pregan- and activated acetate (acetylcoenzyme glionic axon terminals to ganglion cells. A), a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme M2 receptors mediate acetylcholine ef- choline acetyltransferase. The highly fects on the heart: opening of K+ chan- polar choline is actively transported into nels leads to slowing of diastolic depola- the axoplasm.
Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: diabetes order extra super levitra 100mg, high blood pressure buy discount extra super levitra 100 mg on line, heart disease, past shoulder dislocations, or episodes of bursitis. Your Doctor Visit (hip pain) What your doctor will ask you about: ability to walk, low back pain, muscle pain, pain in other joints, pain spreading to other joints. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: sickle-cell disease, past surgery on or near hip. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: hemophilia, past knee injury or surgery. Your Doctor Visit (calf or leg pain) What your doctor will ask you about: muscle pain, pain in other joints, pain spreading to other joints, calf swelling or tenderness, low back pain, pain worsened by coughing. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: heart disease, chronic lung dis- ease, recent surgery or prolonged immobilization, thrombophlebitis. Your Doctor Visit (general joint pain) What your doctor will ask you about: muscle pain, pain in other joints, pain spreading to other joints, fever, stiffness of joints in the morning, skin lesions, back pain, cough, runny nose, diarrhea, headache, finger pain, discoloration in the cold. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: rheumatoid arthritis, gout, gon- orrhea, past trauma or surgery to painful area, rheumatic fever, gen- ital discharge. Your doctor will want to know if your pain gets worse at the end of the day or if you feel especially stiff in the morning and, if so, for how long. Your doctor will want to know how long your pain has occurred, and if you were recently exposed to deer ticks or strep throat. JOINT PAIN 135 Your doctor will do a physical examination including the following: • Pain in arms or legs: checking for swelling, tenderness, defor- mity, discoloration or warmth, range of motion. GENERAL JOINT PAIN CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Osteoarthritis Joint inflammation Persistent pain in one or associated with aging more joints, seldom in wrists or elbows or shoul- ders, occurs more com- monly in people over 40 Virus Joint pain associated with Joint pain associated with a viral infection, such as flu-like symptoms, pain the common cold often disappears within a few minutes Post-infectious Joint pain occurring after Pain in at least one joint, arthritis some type of bacterial history of infection with infection the bacteria that cause gonorrhea, history of dis- charge from the vagina or urethra (the tube that car- ries urine out of the body), fever, skin rashes, warmth and tenderness in joints Gout Joint pain caused by Warm and red joints, ten- abnormal breakdown of der and swollen joints, substances by the body pain in at least one joint, family history of gout, tends to occur in big toe 136 JOINT PAIN WHAT CAN CAUSE JOINT PAIN, AND WHAT IS TYPICAL FOR EACH CAUSE? Loss of consciousness most often results from head injury, drug over- dose, or drinking too much alcohol. Your Doctor Visit What the doctor will ask about: fever, shaking chills, headache, sweating, tremulousness, convulsion, trouble breathing, cough, nau- sea, vomiting, painful or difficult urination, dark urine, recent change in urine quantity, change in sensation or movements. The doctor will want to know if the patient or anyone in his fam- ily has had any of these conditions: any chronic disease, convul- sions or seizures, emotional problems, nervous system disease, dia- betes, high blood pressure, renal or liver disease, alcoholism, lung disease, heart disease. The doctor will want to know what happened immediately before the patient lost consciousness, and how quickly he lost consciousness. The doctor will want to know if the patient is taking any med- ications, including: sedatives, tranquilizers, insulin, opiates. The doctor will do a physical examination including the follow- ing: blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse, temperature, thorough eye exam, checking the neck for stiffness, listening to the chest with a stethoscope, skin exam, checking extremities for swelling, thorough check of the reflexes and movement. CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Blackouts (See Temporarily losing Blacking out after standing, chapter on consciousness or vision, exercise, stress, or a partic- Blackouts.
If the dose of drug (D) and its is differently developed in different seg- plasma concentration (c) are known cheap extra super levitra 100mg with mastercard, a ments of the vascular tree order 100 mg extra super levitra otc. These re- volume of distribution (V) can be calcu- gional differences are not illustrated in lated from V = D/c. Some lipophilic substances diffuse ceed the actual size of the available fluid through the cell membrane and, as a re- volume. Distribution in the Body 29 1 2 3 4 Distribution in tissue Plasma Interstitium 6% 25% 4% 65% Erythrocytes Aqueous spaces of the organism Intracellular space Lysosomes Mito- chondria Nucleus Cell membrane 5 6 7 A. Compartments for drug distribution Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Having entered the blood, drugs may When concentrations of free drug fall, bind to the protein molecules that are drug is resupplied from binding sites on present in abundance, resulting in the plasma proteins. The degree of place another from its binding site and binding is governed by the concentra- thereby elevate the free (effective) con- tion of the reactants and the affinity of a centration of the displaced drug (a form drug for a given protein. Elevation of the centration in plasma amounts to free concentration of the displaced drug 4. As a rule, drugs ex- A decrease in the concentration of hibit much lower affinity (KD approx. Protein binding is of great importance, because it is the con- centration of free drug that determines the intensity of the effect. At an identi- cal total plasma concentration (say, 100 ng/mL) the effective concentration will be 90 ng/mL for a drug 10% bound to protein, but 1 ng/mL for a drug 99% bound to protein. The reduction in con- centration of free drug resulting from protein binding affects not only the in- tensity of the effect but also biotransfor- mation (e. Distribution in the Body 31 Drug is Drug is not bound strongly to plasma bound to proteins plasma proteins Effect Effect Effector cell Effector cell Biotransformation Biotransformation Renal elimination Renal elimination Plasma concentration Plasma concentration Free drug Bound drug Free drug Time Time A. Importance of protein binding for intensity and duration of drug effect Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. The blood (phenyl ring) (B) can be hydroxylated content of hepatic vessels and sinusoids and, thus, become more hydrophilic amounts to 500 mL. Besides oxi- ing of the portal lumen, intrahepatic dases, sER also contains reductases and blood flow decelerates (A). The latter con- the endothelial lining of hepatic sinu- jugate glucuronic acid with hydroxyl, soids (p. Thus, blood and hepatic paren- phase I metabolism (Phase II conjuga- chyma are able to maintain intimate tion). Phase I and Phase II metabolites contact and intensive exchange of sub- can be transported back into the blood stances, which is further facilitated by — probably via a gradient-dependent microvilli covering the hepatocyte sur- carrier — or actively secreted into bile. Prolonged exposure to certain sub- The hepatocyte secretes biliary strates, such as phenobarbital, carbama- fluid into the bile canaliculi (dark zepine, rifampicin results in a prolifera- green), tubular intercellular clefts that tion of sER membranes (cf.
It Whole blood is a viscous (thick) fluid that varies in carries the cells and antibodies of the immune system color from bright scarlet to dark red discount extra super levitra 100mg mastercard, depending on how that protect against pathogens purchase extra super levitra 100 mg online. The formed ele- Transportation ments, which include cells and cell fragments, fall into three categories, as follows: ◗ Oxygen from inhaled air diffuses into the blood through thin membranes in the lungs and is carried by ◗ Erythrocytes (eh-RITH-ro-sites), from erythro, mean- the circulation to all body tissues. These materials enter the blood from the digestive ◗ Platelets, also called thrombocytes (THROM-bo-sites), system or are released into the blood from body reserves. Figure 13-2 shows all the cate- ney removes excess water, acid, electrolytes, and urea gories of formed elements in a blood smear, that is, a (a nitrogen-containing waste). The liver removes blood blood sample spread thinly over the surface of a glass pigments, hormones, and drugs, and the lungs elimi- slide, as viewed under a microscope. For ex- of functions, including the formation of bone (calcium and ample, the level of glucose, a simple sugar, is maintained at phosphorus), the production of certain hormones (such as a remarkably constant level of about one tenth of one per- iodine for the production of thyroid hormones), and the cent (0. The plasma proteins in- Other materials transported in plasma include vita- clude the following: mins, hormones, waste products, drugs, and dissolved gases, primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide. The ancestors of The remaining 1% of the plasma consists of nutrients, all the blood cells are called hematopoietic (blood-form- electrolytes, and other materials that must be transported. Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of the incomplete burning of fuels, such as gasoline and other petroleum products and coal, wood, and other car- Erythrocytes bon-containing materials. The need for constant blood cell re- the hormone erythropoietin (eh-rith-ro-POY-eh-tin) placement means that normal activity of the red bone (EPO), which is released from the kidney in response to marrow is absolutely essential to life. Erythrocytes are different from other cells in that the mature form found in the circulat- Leukocytes The leukocytes, or white blood cells ing blood lacks a nucleus (is anuclear) and also lacks most (WBCs, or white cells), are different from the erythro- of the other organelles commonly found in cells. Occurring at a concentration in the red cells to hemoglobin (he-mo-GLO-bin), a pro- of 5,000 to 10,000 per cubic millimeter of blood, leuko- tein that contains iron (see Box 13-1, Hemoglobin: Door cytes are outnumbered by red cells by about 700 to 1. Therefore, the blood that goes from the lungs to the tissues is a bright red because it carries a great supply of oxygen; in contrast, the blood that returns to the lungs is a much darker red because it has given up much of its oxygen to the tissues. THE BLOOD ✦ 267 Box 13-1 A Closer Look Hemoglobin: Door to Door Oxygen DeliveryHemoglobin: Door to Door Oxygen Delivery he hemoglobin molecule is a protein made of four chains Hemoglobin allows the blood to carry much more oxygen Tof amino acids (the globin pzmolecule), each of which than it could were the oxygen simply dissolved in the plasma. This protein in red blood cells consists of four etary protein and iron are still essential to maintain hemoglo- amino acid chains (globins), each with an oxygen-binding bin supplies. They are present in all basic dyes and show lavender granules white blood cells, but they are more easily stained and ◗ Eosinophils (e-o-SIN-o-fils) stain with acidic dyes more visible in some cells than in others. The relative per- (eosin is one) and have beadlike, bright pink granules centage of the different types of leukocytes is a valuable ◗ Basophils (BA-so-fils) stain with basic dyes and have clue in arriving at a medical diagnosis (Table 13-2). Because the nuclei of the Table 13•2 Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) neutrophils have various shapes, these RELATIVE cells are also called polymorphs (mean- PERCENTAGE ing “many forms”) or simply polys.