By T. Ayitos. North Georgia College and State University, the Military College of Georgia. 2018.
The present study was performed to evaluate the treatment system for its usefulness and for any problems involved by reviewing retrospectively patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis showing a PTA of 30° or greater that was treated by intertrochanteric osteotomy generic 100 mg aurogra fast delivery. Patients We investigated 28 hips in 26 patients purchase aurogra 100mg with amex, which were treated by the Imhäuser intertro- chanteric osteotomy, with subsequent removal of implants. Of the 28 affected hip joints studied, 22 were unilateral in unilater- ally affected cases, 2 were unilateral in bilaterally affected cases, and 4 were in 2 Corrective Imhäuser Intertrochanteric Osteotomy for SCFE 41 bilaterally affected cases. The age at onset of the disorder, estimated from the medical history taken at clinic interview, ranged from 8 years and 6 months to 22 years and 9 months (mean, 12 years and 4 months), and the age at which surgical treatment was performed was between 8 years and 10 months and 23 years and 2 months (mean, 13 years and 2 months). Age at the time of the ﬁnal follow-up was between 13 years and 8 months and 28 years and 3 months (mean, 18 years and 9 months). The postopera- tive follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 11 years (mean, 5 years and 7 months). According to the classiﬁcation deﬁned by Campbell Operative Orthopaedics, the type of onset was chronic for 11 hips, acute on chronic for 15, and acute for 2. In situ pinning on unaffected hips for epiphyseodesis was performed on 20 hips. Methods Pertinent data were reviewed as to duration of preoperative traction and intraopera- tive correction angle by osteotomy and such clinical parameters as range of motion of the hip joint, any pain, and, in unilaterally affected cases, difference in leg length. Roentgenographically, the apparent neck–shaft angle was measured in the anteropos- terior (AP) view and the pre- and postoperative PTA in the lateral view. Results Duration of Traction The duration of preoperative traction ranged from 2 to 114 days (mean, 45 days). According to the classiﬁcation based on physeal stability, the range of this duration was 2 to 53 days (mean, 21 days) for stable cases and 36 to 114 days (mean, 58 days) for unstable cases. Correction Angle The intraoperative correction angle was 15° to 40° (mean, 31°) on ﬂexion, 10° to 30° (mean, 24°) on valgus, and 25° to 50° (mean, 37°) on anterotation. Clinical Results For range of motion of the hip joint, ﬂexion angle was 20° to 120° (mean, 67°) before operation and improved to 90° to 135° (mean, 118°) at the ﬁnal follow-up (Fig. Internal rotation angle also improved to 0° to 80° (mean, 34°) at the ﬁnal follow-up from −30° to 35° (mean, −10°) before operation. External rotation angle, which was 10° to 90° (mean, 59°) before operation, was noted to have improved to 10° to 60° (mean, 40°) at the last follow-up (Fig. None of the patients had a difference in range of motion by 20° or greater at the ﬁnal checkup. In other words, external rota- tion contracture of the hip joint and Drehman’s sign, which had been evident before operation, were noted to have disappeared in all patients. Development of posterior tilting angle (PTA) joint pain developed in 1 patient in whom there was narrowing of the joint space. Roentgenographic Results PTA ranged from 33° to 72° (mean, 56°) before operation. Postoperatively, it was between 0° and 30° (mean, 19°); the PTA became restored to within the allowable range of up to 30° in all patients (Fig.
However 100mg aurogra with amex, you must re- 42 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS member that anybody can publish information over the internet and you should be aware that some of this infor- mation can be misleading or incorrect best 100mg aurogra. Of course this is the case for any published information and as you develop your research skills so you should also develop your criti- cal thinking and reasoning skills. What motives did the publishers have for making sure their information had reached the public domain? Using web sites By developing these skills early in your work, you will start to think about your own research and any personal bias in your methods and reporting which may be present. The web sites of many universities now carry information about how to use the web carefully and sensibly for your research and it is worth accessing these before you begin your background work. When you’re surﬁng the net, there are some extra precau- tions you can take to check the reliability and quality of the information you have found: X Try to use websites run by organisations you know and trust. X Check the About Us section on the web page for more information about the creator and organisation. X Use another source, if possible, to check any informa- tion of which you are unsure. For example, if you’re interested in medical information you can check the HOW TO CONDUCT BACKGROUND RESEARCH / 43 credentials of UK doctors by phoning the General Medical Council. X You should check the national source of the data as in- formation may diﬀer between countries. X For some topics speciﬁc websites have been set up that contain details of questionable products, services and theories. Interlibrary loans If you are a student your institutional library will prob- ably oﬀer an interlibrary loan service which means that you can access books from other university libraries if they are not available in your library. This is a useful service if, when referencing, you ﬁnd that a small amount of infor- mation is missing (see Example 5 below). EXAMPLE 5: GILLIAN Nobody told me the importance of keeping careful re- cords of my background research. I just thought it was something you did and then that was it, you got on with 44 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS your own research and forgot about what you’d done. Of course then I had to write my report and in the ‘background’ section I wanted to include loads of things I’d read when I ﬁrst started the work. Even then I still forgot to write down the name and location of the publisher, so I had to go back to them again. My advice would be to look at how bibliographies are structured and imprint that in your brain so you don’t forget anything.
Confusion in the students’ minds about how they are being assessed can also cause difficulties buy aurogra 100mg amex. Generally speaking buy generic aurogra 100 mg online, assessing contributions to discussion is inhibiting and should be avoided. If you do not have discretion in this matter then at least make it quite clear what criteria you are looking for in your assessment. Should you be able to determine your own assessment policy then the following are worth considering: Require attendance at all (or a specified proportion of) group meetings as a prerequisite. A discussion with the group about how they think things are going or the administration of a short questionnaire are ways of seeking feedback. Be sensitive to the emotional responses of the group and to the behaviour of individual students. The book by Tiberius is a useful source of additional advice on such issues. GUIDED READING For a wide-ranging discussion of the purposes and techniques of small group teaching we suggest you turn to the collection of papers edited by D. Bligh: Teach Thinking by Discussion, SRHE/NFER, Nelson, Guildford, UK 1986. This monograph also provides a good introduc- tion to the research literature on small groups. Another excellent guide, to both the theory and the practice of group work, is D. However, most medical teachers, at some time, will wish to make a presentation at a scientific meeting. There are many obvious similarities between giving a lecture and presenting a paper. There are also significant differences which may not be quite so obvious which made us feel that this chapter might be appreciated. Poster sessions are growing in popularity at many national and international meetings as an alternative to the formal presentation of papers. We have, therefore, included a short segment on the preparation of a conference poster. PRESENTING A PAPER Though much of the advice given in the chapter on lecturing is just as relevant in this section, the aims of a scientific meeting or conference are different enough to warrant separate consideration. If you are in the position to give a paper it is certain that you will have a lot to say, far more in fact than can possibly be delivered in such a short time. You will also be caught in the difficult situation of having many of the audience unfamiliar with the details of your area of interest, some of the audience knowing consider- ably more than you do about the area, and all of the audience likely to be critical of the content and presenta- tion. These and other factors make the giving of a scientific paper an anxiety provoking situation, particularly for the young and inexperienced lecturer hoping to make a good impression on peers and superiors. However, it is also a situation that is amenable to resolution by careful planning and attention to technique.
The following scenario is not atypical for many mystery malady sufferers generic 100mg aurogra fast delivery. You call your physician again; she is somewhat perplexed but suggests a different antibiotic and perhaps an expectorant purchase aurogra 100mg on line. Out of concern and in an abundance of caution, she refers you to a specialist, perhaps a pulmonolo- gist, an allergist, or both, and you make the rounds. These physicians, in turn, may send you for x-rays, blood tests, and other medical tests. The end result is a laundry list of possible diagnoses, a ﬁstful of medical bills, and a medicine cabinet full of prescriptions that offer you no relief. Perhaps you’re now among the 65 percent of people who take prescribed allergy medica- tions but don’t actually have allergies. At this point, you’re confused, worried, and even slightly depressed because you’re still coughing and you can’t seem to get well. Now you may be thinking the real reason behind your medical problem must be “stress” or, depending on how fearful you’ve become, some undetected form of lung cancer. Soon your upbeat and generally good-natured physicians and their staff start to sound annoyed when you call yet again because they’ve been unable to help you. Either you’ve given up entirely on doctors or you may still be search- ing for the right one who will have the answers. Your friends and relatives encourage you to visit a renowned diagnos- tic clinic for yet another opinion. Although you are still coughing, at least you feel a temporary reprieve from your anxieties because surely these doc- tors will be able to make a deﬁnitive diagnosis. The day of your appoint- ment arrives and so do you, along with all your records, a list of questions, All About Mystery Maladies: A New Mind-Set 23 and renewed conﬁdence that your mysterious symptoms will ﬁnally be iden- tiﬁed and treated. The clinic physicians review your records, perform their own physical exams, administer new tests, and repeat others. After this visit, the doctors are absolutely certain of what you don’t have, but they don’t seem to know exactly what you do have. You diligently try to follow their treatment suggestions and obtain some relief, but your symp- toms still don’t go away completely. The following table lists some examples of mystery maladies, and following that are some statistics of how many people suffer from them. We’ll discuss many of these mystery maladies in case studies throughout the book.